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Filed in Chemical Engineering Project Topics by on January 16, 2020 0 Comments






A number of seed oils have been characterized, but the vast majority has not been adequately evaluated. This is also particularly valid for the Nigerian flora which has one of the most extensive flora in continental Africa. Sandbox tree (HuraCrepitans) falls into this group of underutilized species of plants. HuraCrepitanst is about 25 m tall with very spiny trunk and branches and is commonly planted as shade. Besides being a source of seed oil, HuraCrepitans may possibly have edible uses, industrial application and pharmaceutical importance.

The identification seed and seed like fruits usually are based on external morphological features such as shape, size, color and surface configuration or texture. Sometimes, the external anatomy of the seed size and the position of the embryo or the nature of the endosperm, for example; furnishes useful clue to its identity. Sandbox tree (HuraCrepitans) is known in the American tropics for the force that accompanies the bursting of its round three (3) inches capsule, a force said to be enough to break open a small wooden box in which a capsule was kept (Odigboh, 1997).

Sandbox tree can grow to thirty (30) meters (100 ft.) and the large ovate leaves grow to two (2) ft. wide. They are monoecious. Their red flowers have no petals. Male flowers grow on long spikes; female flowers are solitary in axiles. The fruit is a large capsule with explosive dehiscence. When ripe, pods catapult the seeds as far as 100 m (300 ft.). It has also been known as the dynamite tree, so named for the exclusive sound of the ripe fruits as it splits into segmentsOkolie et al, 2011).

1.1 Background of Study

Alkyd resins are polyesters modified with unsaturated fatty acids. Vegetables oils are renewable resources and are mainly of plant origin. They are triglycerides and always have at least one unsaturated fatty acid in its chemical structure.

Most vegetable oils contain all straight chain fatty acid with even number of carbon atoms ranging from three (3) to eighteen (18) carbons (Mazandarani, 1992). The specific fatty acid composition of triglyceride oils varies with the species of the oil and its origin.

Alkyd resins are polyesters produced by the poly condensation of poly-basic acids with polyhydric alcohol modified with triglycerides vegetable oils. It has been proposed that polyester containing ester functionality, particularly aliphatic polyesters might be biodegradable (Johnson and Fritz, 1989). It is believed that biodegradation of these polyesters proceeds by the attack of the ester groups by non-specific esterase’s produced by ground micro flora combined with hydrolytic attack.

Alkyd resins are extensively used in the coatings and paint industries and have become indispensable raw materials that are used for the production of industrial and household finishes. The popularity of Alkyd resins as vehicle for coatings is largely due to their unique property such as film hardness, durability, gloss retention, resistance to abrasion, all impacted on them through modification with drying oil (8).

Two main method used in the preparation of Alkyd resins are;

  1. One stage process of fatty acid method: this is often used because neither alcoholysisnoracidiolysis is needed.
  2. Two stage process or alcoholysis or monoglyceride process: it has two stages, in first stage, the triglyceride oil is subjected to a reaction with glycerol at a temperature between 220-250 °C in the presence of a catalysis, usually litharge (PbO) or calcium trioxocarbonate (IV) (CaCO3) to obtain a monoglyceride precursor. To have a total conversion of glyceride to monoglyceride, excess glycerol can be used. The mixture is usually heated for three to four (3-4) hours until triglycerides are converted to monoglycerides.

Alkyd resins constitute a very high proportion of conversional binders used in surface coatings. Binders are responsible for properties such as toughness, flexibility, durability, hardness, gloss and adhesion of paint film. The binder is a nonvolatile portion of the paint vehicle that binds or cements pigment molecules together, and the paint film as a whole on the substrate to which it is applied.

Generally, additives are substances added to paints to improve the quality and hence performance characteristics in various ways, by performing specific functions. Example is the dryer, which promotes the rate of drying of the paint film. Various vegetable oil sources that are used for Alkyd preparation include: soya bean oil, melon seed oil, cotton seed oil, coconut seed oil etc. a common property of these oils is their degree of unsaturation. Also, examples of polyhydric alcohols are glycerol’s, ethylene glycols, and pentaerythritol and trimethylol propane. While the commonly used acids/ anhydrides are phthalic anhydride, isophthalic anhydride and malic anhydride (Weiss, 1997).

It should be noted that acid value is the measure of the amount of free acid present in the oil and it is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free fatty acid in one gram of the sample. A coating is basically composed of binder (film formers), pigment and solvent. Volatile organic solvents are injurious to human health and it is also perceived to be a contributory factor to global warming and depletion of the ozone layer. Global warming has been a major problem all over the world. The possible consequences of this phenomenon include increase in earth’s surface temperature leading to the collapse of the Antarctic Ice Shelf, rise in sea level and flooding.

The challenge that has confronted the paint manufacturer and the engineer is how to reduce the volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the coating. Thus, coating producers are switching to more environmental friendly technologies that perform like solvent based coatings, such technologies have resulted in the production of water based, high-solids, and powder and radiation-cure coatings in which excellent coatings properties are combined with environmental factors. Water based coating are more economically attractive and thus are gaining preeminence due to cheapness of water  and the restrictive areas of application of other coating types.

As earlier stated, Alkyd resins are major important binders which they are the largest volume base of coatings and paint especially for decorative application. The term alkyd is derived from words, “al” which has prefix abbreviation of alcohol and the “kyd” which has suffix abbreviation of acid and are products of the esterification of polybasic acids and polyhydric alcohols.

Alkyd resins are used for decorative painting applications more than other binders because of lower cost, low price of alkyd resins related to inexpensive raw material, easy manufacturing and high solubility of resins in less expensive solvents. Alkyd resins not only are used in decorative paintings but are also applied in air drying and storing paints, inks, machine tool finishes and clear matt and semi matt vanishes of wood furniture.

Productions of low solvent amount, high quality organic coatings for industrial applications are important targets in coating industry. Formulation of a low solvent amount coating requires the use of a low molecular weight polymer that has low viscosity. For this purpose, many investigators suggested low molecular weight resins or new method for preparation of low viscosity resins.

Alkyd resins have acquired a good reputation because of their economic viability and ease of application. Additional, they are to a greater extent biologically degradable polymers because of the oil and glycerol parts contained in them.

1.2 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this work PRODUCTION OF ALKYD RESINS FROM LOCAL RAW MATERIALS is to produce Alkyd Resins using locally sourced raw materials.

The objectives of the work are as follows;

  • To identify viable raw material for the development of alkyd resins.
  • To synthesis, characterize and evaluate the development of alkyd resins from the identified raw material.
  • To compare the developed product with commercial samples

1.3 Problem Statement

In the previous years, several seed oils have been used for the production of alkyd resins as binders in oil paint productions, but in this work, sandbox tree seed oil (HuraCrepitans) will be used not only as a binder for oil paint production, but also will be evaluated and used as a binder in emulsion paint production.

1.4 Justification of Research

Despite the abundant and sufficient raw materials found in Nigeria for the production of alkyd resins for surface coatings in paint production, millions of naira is still used annually to purchase alkyd resins from various companies outside the country that is used in paint production here in Nigeria.

Research has shown that the materials for producing alkyd resins are in abundance in Nigeria especially in Akwa Ibom State where we have sandbox tree (HuraCrepitans) planted as shade almost in all local government areas of the state. The utilization of same for the production of alkyd resins to be used in the production of paints is what this research seeks to achieve.

1.5 Scope of Research

This work PRODUCTION OF ALKYD RESINS FROM LOCAL RAW MATERIALS is limited to the use of sandbox tree (HuraCrepitans) as a local raw material for the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of alkyd resins, amidst all other local raw materials that could be used. The research, is limited geographically to Akwa Ibom State.

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