One of the major aspects of the social pillar of the Nigeria is education. Nigeria Vision 2030 points out education and training is an instrument to develop Nigeria to be a middle-income economy. Family backgrounds have been highlighted as of great important in molding the performance of children in schools worldwide. This study therefore investigated the Parent Child Relationship and Academic Achievement of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. This study focused on the influences of; parental marital status, family financial status, parents’ education level and family size on the academic performance of students in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study employed a descriptive research design. The target population under study was 1,081 students in Uyo Local Government Area and 1,081 parents. The study used a sample 338 students and parents which were selected by use of a proportionate stratified random sampling method. Data was collected by use of questionnaire for parents and interview schedule for students. The data was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively and presented using frequencies, regression coefficient and Pearson’s coefficient correlation. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used to aid in generating a summary of results which were represented in tabular form. The findings of the study, showed that parental marital status, family size, parents education level and family financial status had a positive relationship with academic performance of students. However, the findings showed that while the marital status of the parents was not significant in explaining the academic performance of students, but the type of family, either cohesive or conflictive had an effect in academic performance. The findings also showed that only 7% of students’ academic performance would be explained by the parents’ education level.
1.1 Background of Study
There are so many factors that militate against the performance of learners at all levels of academic pursuit, and most probably in and around all locations in the world. These factors should be underscored and studied with the aim of getting a better approach to the view of the matter as regards finding out and implementing strategies to tackle every factor leading to poor performance in academics and thereby creating a better scenario where the performance of learners across all levels academic endeavors.
Among these variables to be assessed are the Parent Child Relationship and Academic Performance of learners. To that extent, this research project titled the Parent Child Relationship and Academic Achievement of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, as a way of establishing the correlation between the inter-relationship between the Child and Parent in the light of their of their academic achievement in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence academic achievement of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
Achievement is a vital factor for every living organism and in all strata or ramification of activities in this world. Every activity embarked upon by an individual or group of individuals is aimed at a goal, and achieving this goal is the pursuit of all those involved. The sense of achievement brings Joy, happiness, successful feeling and enthusiasm to everyone which stands as an inducing factor for further actions and efforts to be geared towards reaching greater heights of accomplishment in pursuits of their activities. Every human therefore yearns and tries to reach their targeted achievements in all their activities so as to enjoy these feelings that come with achieving set goals. Not only those the individual craves for it, those around them also look forward to seeing them accomplish these desires. In the case of the Parent Child Relationship, as regards Academic Achievement, it is most intricate to analyze the subject as both the parent and the child are in a way dependent on each other to get the task done.
As much as the parents expects their child, children and wards to excel, the place of getting to the point of reaching this great goal of success by the child or children is so much dependent on the parents. The environment or atmosphere that aids in getting the child to achieve much academically is almost directly dependent on the parent. Yes, not only the parents are liable and responsible for the academic achievement of the child, but the role of the parents are so integral that the constitute the paramount factor, combined with that of the teacher the shapes to a good or bad direction, the outcome of a child’s academic pursuit.
Albert Camus was right when he said as quoted “Every achievement is servitude. It compels us to a higher achievement”. So achievement is an indispensable factor in everyone’s life. Academic achievement has become the greatest and most important index of a child’s future in this highly competitive world and a most important pointer of learning and understanding in all system of education. As seeing by Trow (1960), academic achievement as the attained degree or ability of competence in school tasks usually measured by standardized tests and expressed in terms of marks and or grades based on norms. Parents play a decisive role in moulding every bit of character in their children and wards, and this character developed and nurtured along the course of their academic pursuit is a key determining factor of how long or well a child’s performance and achievement will be academically.
All parents are greatly interested in the welfare of their children, and this interest is seeing in the aspect showcased by their interest in their Middle Basic Learneracademic performance and achievement. Every parent wants their wards to achieve excellence and be top in the ladder as long as their classes or sphere of academic is concerned, and to a great extent they want their kids to be heard as or among great scholars of time. Parent Child relationship consists of a combination of behaviors, feelings and expectations that are unique to a particular parent and a particular child. The relationship involves the full extent of a child’s development from infancy to adulthood. The development of the skills, values and social behaviours that maximize adaptation to the society in which a particular child grows requires the planning of many relatively independent forces that come into play in child development. The most important of these include, the temperamental inclinations that the child inherits from his parents, the class, ethnic and religious associations and interactions of the family the child is born into, his/her relationship with other children born into the family, the historical period in which and where childhood is spent and always the behaviours and personality traits of the parents.
Parental influences on the child assume two different outstanding forms, with which the Parental actions with the child are most obvious. Parents who regularly talk and read to their children usually produce children with the largest vocabularies, the highest intelligence scores and the best academic grades. Parents who reason with their children while making requests for obedience usually end up with more civil children. One of the most important illustrations of the power of parental behavior is the fact that some children who were orphaned and made homeless by war were able to regain intellectual and social skills they failed to develop during their early privation if they were adopted by families with a friendly demeanor. Academic achievement, the vital factor for children for pursuing education or for carrier development is greatly influenced by relationship with their parents. Parents are unarguably the first teachers of their children from home do play a vital role in inducing the interest to learn in their child or children, inspire them and energizes the children when they are fed up and spur them up when they are tired of a long study hours. Also the parents are continuously a strength gaining factor when they stand behind their children when they face initial failures and many other difficulties associated with academics. Their guidance in choice making, especially as regards association with peers and such parental control do mould the child into the person he or she will become and creates basic schedules for studying, which is a key factor that propels the child to better academic achievements. Thus the parent child relationship has great impact on various aspects of the children especially on the academic achievement of the child or children in the household, that is which this study on the Parent Child Relationship and Academic Achievement of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State is a needful to be exploited to give course to the emergence of better relationship between the child or children in the households and their parents as a way of making the Middle Basic Learner of Social Studies excel better academically.
1.2 Statement of Problem
It is no longer news even to a deaf man or a blind one that the ugly trend and constant backslide in the level of academic performance has been on the increase and thus creating a source of concern to all. The constant decline of performance level of students across all strata of learning and courses or area of study is a concern that has become global over the past decades, with the revitalization of educational standards being one the goal that all world organizations and bodies are pursuing at the moment. All developmental goals and strategies revolves around education and as such much funds are geared towards researches that will go a long way to determine the causes of poor performance among students in different geographical and study areas, with each of such reports exploiting or exploring different factors that have a correlation with the performance of students or learners. To a much narrow scene, the academic achievement of the Middle Basic Learners of Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State has as a matter of fact, become a source of concern to all variables concerned with the education of the child. The teachers, parents, the government and well-meaning organizations and individuals are perturbed with the spate of failure recorded by learners in the subject of Social Studies. A careful inspection of the results turned out in recent examinations will leave you without an atom of doubt that the standard of education has degenerated into an appalling state that is despicable to even consider in any sense. Every question now is asked on how to change for the better, this trend of constant backward movement in academic achievement. Unarguably, the factors leading to this unpleasant reality are inexhaustible, with some being basic constant variables and or factors, while others are dependent on the main factors, making them sub-units or sub variables imbedded on the main issues considered in academic achievements of a child.
As should be envisaged, the apparent lack of the required knowledge of better parenting of children by some parents are some of those factors that have been aiding the conspicuous and ever worrying reality of a the constant back drop of academic achievement and performance of learners across board. Majority of Parents nowadays are wanting in terms of knowledge in the proper handling of their child or children in such a manner that will enhance their academic performance. Issues such as the lack of adequate time by most parents to spend with their family, the tendency for some to be more critical than corrective when they relate with their children, their level of income, attitude towards the education of children of both sexes and so many others are factors affecting the academic achievement of the child that are more parent centered than could be traced to any other factors which is not seeing to be relating to the parents of the child, and the child’s performance in their academics.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose and aim of this research work is to find out the correlation between the Parent Child Relationship and Academic Achievement of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. To actualize this aim, some basic objectives for the research are fixed.
They objectives of the research thesis are;
- To determine the effect of the interaction of the Parent and Child in the Academic Achievement of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
- To establish the relationship between Parental Perceptions on Involvement in Relation to Academic Performance of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State that will culminate in better Academic Achievement.
- To ascertain the Parental Role of Involvement and the Academic Achievement of the Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The glaring but undesired reality of poor academic performance and achievement among learners of all categories is a critical situation that demands urgent attention by all parties involved in the fight against the scourge. As alarming as it is, the scenario is not completely out of control, as we know that very significant progress can be made if the people involved and made to know and implement certain knowledge that can be derived from qualitative and impact based researches such as this one. Therefore, it is important to state that the goal of this study, Parent Child Relationship and Academic Achievement of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State is that which is borne out of the desire to x-ray and present to the parents, teachers, the government, school administrators, psychologist and all others concerned, the place of the relationship of the child with his or her parents as it regards the academic achievement of the child, especially the Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies. This study will bring to light all the implication of the interrelationship between the child and his or her parents, in a way that it will proffer the best patterns, modes and methods of interaction between them two that will help the Middle Basic Learner to achieve maximally in her academic pursuit in general, and in Social Studies in particular.
1.5 Research Question
From the purpose of this research, and from the objectives rolled out to be achieved from the study, the following questions are coined to help us get the objectives sorted out. The research questions for this study are;
- Is the any effect of the interaction of the Parent and Child in the Academic Achievement of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State?
- What is the effect of Parental Perceptions on Involvement in Relation to Academic Performance of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State that will culminate in better Academic Achievement?
- Is the any effect of Parental Role of Involvement and the Academic Achievement of the Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State?
To guide this research, the following null hypotheses were developed as a tool to be tested for response and analysis. They are;
- There is no significant correlation of the interaction of the Parent and Child in the Academic Achievement of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State?
- There is no significant influence of Parental Perceptions on Involvement in Relation to Academic Performance of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State that will culminate in better Academic Achievement?
There is no significant relationship of Parental Role of Involvement and the Academic Achievement of the Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State?
1.7 Scope and Limitation of Study
The scope of the study covers all areas relating to the interaction between the parent and child as regards their academic performance as coined in the title, Parent Child Relationship of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
However, the study was limited to the determination of Parent Child Relationship of Middle Basic Learner in Social Studies in Uyo Local Government Area, of Akwa Ibom State as the only geographical and political area where it was carried. Therefore, the study is limited to the use of correspondence from only the said geographical and political area, and the analysis and interpretation of the data within the context of the same area.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
They following are the definitions of the terms that will be used the most in this study
Academic Achievement: This refers to the outcome in terms of height or level that an individual attain in their academic or educational pursuit.
Parents: Refers to both biological and guardians who play a role in providing physical and moral support to children.
Child: A child is an upspring born into a family and that which is answerable to the parents. A child in a household is not necessary that given birth to by said parents but also anyone in the household whose has not reached the age of adulthood.
Parental involvement in Middle Basic Learner academic activities: Parental involvement implies that parents participate in one or more school teacher activities such as attending parent-teacher conferences, parent – teacher associations meetings, volunteering at school, assisting children with homework and encouraging to perform better in academic activities in school.
Parenting: is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social and intellectual development of a child, from infancy to childhood. It refers to the activity of raising a child rather than the biological relationship.
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