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BUS 401 EXAMINATION PAST QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
COURSE CODE: BUS 401
COURSE TITLE: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
CREDIT UNIT: 3
INSTRUCTION: 1. Indicate your Matriculation Number clearly
- Attempt question one (1) and any other three (3) questions; four questions in all
- Question one (1) is compulsory and carries 25 marks, while the other questions carry 15 marks each.
- Present all your points in a coherent and orderly Manner
TIME ALLOWED: 2Hours
(a). Identify the three (3) main purposes of a Systems Development Methodology and explain any five (5) principles of system development.
(b). Using an illustrative diagram, list the Ten (10) phases a Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC).
(c). What are the steps to be taken to develop a Strategic Information Systems Plan for an organization?
Answers for Question 1 (a-c):
- (i). Three (3) main purposes of a Systems Development Methodology:
The Objectives/Purposes are to deliver quality systems that:
- Meet or exceed customer expectations and within cost estimates.
- Work effectively and efficiently within the current and planned information technology infrastructure; and are inexpensive to maintain and cost effective to enhance.
- An SDLC is developed to disseminate proven practices to system developers, project managers, program/account analysts and system owners/users throughout any organization.
- (ii) Key Principles of a Systems Development include the following:
- Life Cycle Management should be used to ensure a Structured Approach to Information Systems Development, Maintenance, and Operation.
- Support the use of an Integrated Product Team.
- Each System Project must have a Program Sponsor.
- A Single Project Manager must be Selected for Each System Project.
- A Comprehensive Project Management Plan is required for Each System Project.
- Specific Individuals Must be Assigned to Perform Key Roles throughout the Life Cycle.
- Obtaining the Participation of Skilled Individuals is Vital to the success of the System Project.
- Documentation of Activity Results and Decisions for Each Phase of the Life Cycle are Essential.
- Data Management is Required throughout the Life Cycle.
- Each System Project Must Undergo Formal Acceptance.
- Consultation with Oversight Organizations Aids in the Success of a System Project.
- A System Project may not Proceed until Resource Availability is Assured.
(b). 10 Phases of the Systems Development Life Cycle Methodology include the following:
- Conceptual Development.
- Requirement Analysis.
- Integration and Testing.
- Operations & Maintenance.
(c). The steps required to develop an Information Systems Strategic Plan are to create a strategic Steering Committee and undertake the following tasks:
- Understand Organizational Objectives.
- Establish Organizational Information Requirements.
- Outline Generic Systems and Technology to Meet Organizational Information Requirements.
- Conduct Information System Audit.
- Survey the organization’s existing information-related resources.
- Determine Major Issues Affecting Information System.
- Decide Information System Priorities and Strategies.
- Estimate Alternatives and Decide solutions.
- Determine Role of Financial and Human Resources.
- Detailed Action Plan for Strategy Implementation.
- Manage, Review and Evolve Information System Strategy.
(a). What are the key deliverables of the Requirement Analysis Phase for the design and development of an Information Systems?
(b). Explain the Roles and Responsibilities of the following stakeholders in the Design Phase of a SDLC:
(i). Project Manager
(ii). Project Team
(iii). Contracting Officer, and
(iv). Oversight Agency.
(a). Key Deliverables of the Systems Requirement Analysis Phase are:
(i). Functional Requirement Document:
- Serves as the foundation for the systems design and development phase.
- Captures the user requirements to be implemented in the new or enhanced system.
- Documented by the Subject Matter Experts into a standard matrix.
- All requirement should include consideration of capacity and growth.
- Includes records and privacy acts requirements, Electronic Record Management, Records disposition schedule and component change requirements.
(ii) Tests and Evaluation Masterplan:
- Ensures all aspects of the systems are adequately tested and can be implemented and documented
(iii). Interface Control Document:
- Provides the outline for use in the specification of the requirements imposed on one or more systems, subsystems configuration items or other systems components to achieve one or more interfaces among the entities.
- An Interface Control Document can cover requirements for any number of interfaces between any numbers of systems.
(iv). Privacy Act Notice/Privacy Impact Assessment:
- Identifies the purpose of the systems; Describes its routine use and what types of information and data are contained in its records;
- Describes where and how the records are located;
- Identifies who the systems manager is.
- The Record Management Representatives are responsible for determining if a system is a System of Records for the Project Manager to prepare the actual Notice for publication in the Federal Register.
- The System of Record Notice shall be a required deliverable for the Requirement Analysis Phase as also the Privacy Impact Assessment ( a written evaluation of the impact that the implementation of the proposed system would have on Privacy).
(b) Roles and Responsibilities of the following Stakeholders in the Systems Design Phase are:
(i). Project Manager:
- The project manager is responsible and accountable for the successful execution of the Design Phase.
- The project manager is responsible for leading the team that accomplishes the tasks shown above.
- The Project Manager is also responsible for reviewing deliverables, for accuracy, approving deliverables and providing status reports to management.
(ii). Project Team:
- The project team members (regardless of the organization of permanent assignment) are responsible for accomplishing assigned tasks as directed by the project manager.
(iii). Contracting Officer:
- The contracting officer is responsible and accountable for procurement activities and signs contract awards.
(iv). Oversight Agency:
- Agency oversight activities, including the IRM office, provide advice and counsel to the project manager on the conduct and requirements of the Design Phase.
- Additionally, oversight activities provide information, judgments, and recommendations to the agency decision makers during project reviews, and in support of project decision milestones.
(a). Define the term ‘Dynamic Systems Development Methodology’.
(b). Identify and discuss the critical success factors behind the operations of Dynamic Systems Method.
(a). Dynamic System Development Methodology can be define in the following ways:
- Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) is a framework based originally around Rapid Application Development (RAD), supported by its continuous user involvement in an iterative development and incremental approach which is responsive to changing requirements, in order to develop a system that meets the business needs on time and on budget.
- It is one of a number of Agile developing software and forms part of the Agile Alliance
- As an extension of rapid application development.
- DSDM focuses on Information Systems, projects that are characterized by tight schedules and budgets.
- DSDM addresses the common reasons for system’s project failure, including exceeding budgets, missing deadlines, and lack of user involvement, and top management commitment.
(b) Critical success factors to operating a Dynamic Systems Development Methodology are:
- First there is the acceptance of DSDM by senior management and other employees.
- This ensures that the different actors of the project are motivated from the start and remain involved throughout the project.
2: Management Commitment:
- The second factor follows directly from this and that is the commitment of management to ensure end-user involvement.
- The prototyping approach requires a strong and dedicated involvement by end user to test and judge the functional prototypes.
3: Skilful Members:
- Then there is the project teamto be composed of skilful members that form a stable union.
- An important issue is the empowerment of the project team.
- This means that the team (or one or more of his members) has topossess the power and possibility to make important decisions regarding the project without having to write formal proposals to higher management, which can be very time-consuming.
- In order for the project team to be able to run a successful project, they also need the right technology to conduct the project. This means a development environment, project management tools, etc.
4: Supportive Relationship:
- Finally, DSDM also states that a supportive relationship between customer and vendor is required.
- This goes for both projects that are realized internally within companies or by outside contractors.
(a). Define the term ‘Project Management’?
(b). Explain the three (3) main constraints to implementing a successful project. (c). What are the key activities involved in the following Project Development Stages:
(i) Project Initiation
(ii) Planning and Design
- Project Management can be defined in any of the following ways below:
- Project management is defined as the discipline of organizing and managing resources in such a way that these resources deliver all the work required to complete a project within defined scope, time, and cost constraints.
- A project is a temporary and one-time endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service.
(b) Three major Constraints to Managing a successful Project are:
(c ) Project Development Stages are:
- Project Initiation:
- The initiation stage determines the nature and scope of the development.
- If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meetingthe business’s needs.
- The key project controls needed here is an understanding of the business environment, and making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project.
- Any deficiencies should be reported, and a recommendation should be made to fix them.
- The initiation stage should include a cohesive plan that encompasses the following areas:
- Study analysing the business needs in measurable goals.
- Review of the current operations.
- Conceptual design of the operation of the final product.
- Equipment requirement.
- Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget.
- Select stake holders, including users, and support personnel for the project.
- Project charter including costs, tasks, deliverables, and schedule.
(ii). Planning and design
- After the initiation stage, the system is designed.
- Occasionally, a small prototype of the final product is built and tested.
- Testing is generally performed by a combination of testers and end users and can occur after the prototype is built or concurrently. Controls should be in places that ensure that the final product will meet the specifications of the project charter.
- The results of the design stage should include a product design that:
- Satisfies the project sponsor, end user, and business requirements.
- Functions as it was intended.
- Can be produced within quality standards.
- Can be produced within time and budget constraints.
(iii). Production or Execution
- The execution stage includes the actual implementation of the design or plan.
- In software systems, this includes conversion (transfer of data from an old system to a new system), documentation, and training. From an auditor’s perspective, training is also important because it helps users use the software correctly.
- The bulk of the project’s work and largest capital expenditure is realized in this stage.
(iv). Closing and Maintenance:
- Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned.
- Maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes:
- Continuing support of end users
- Correction of errors
- Updates of the software over time.
(a). Define the term ‘Risk Management’
(b). Explain the following Risk Management Processes:
(i). Risk Identification
(ii). Risk Assessment, and
(iii). Potential Risks Treatment.
- Risk Management is basically a process of assessing risk and development of strategies to curb such identified risk in management.
- Risk Management Process include the following:
(i) Risk Identification:
- Risk Definition: – Risks are about events that, when triggered, will cause problems.
- First step in the process of managing risk is to Identify the potential Risk, involving:
- Source Analysis – Internal or External to the systems.
- Problem Analysis- Fear Related (Loss of Money/Privacy Abuse/accidents/Casualties.
- Investigation then Follows.
- Method of identification may depend on Culture, Industry Practice and Compliance.
- Identification method are formed by templates for use to source and identify the problem or event.
- Risk- Identification methods include:
- Objective based Risk identification – Any event that may endanger achieving an objective partly or completely is identified as risky.
- Scenario based Risk Identification- Alternative ways to achieve an objective or an analysis of the interaction of forces. An event that triggers an undesired scenario alternative is identified.
- Taxonomy Based Risk Identification- Breakdown of possible Risk sources. Based on the Taxonomy and Knowledge of best practice, a Questionnaire is compiled and answers to the questions reveal the risk inherent.
- Common Risk Checking- Industry Risk List are available to check for application to a particular situation. EG. In the Software Industry, there exists the Common Vulnerability and Exposure list is available online.
(ii). Risk Assessment:
- Once risk has been identified, then it must be assessed as to its potential severity of loss and possible occurrence.
- Quantities can be simple to measure or impossible to know in case of probability of the unlikely even occurring.
- Assessment is therefore critical to make an educated guess possible in order to prioritize the implementation of the risk management plan.
(iii) . Potential Risk Treatment:
- Once risks have been identified and assessed, all techniques to manage risks fall into one or more these four major categories:
- Risk Avoidance- Not performing a risk carrying activity- Not buying/doing/flying
- Risk Mitigation/Reduction – Reducing the severity of loss, S/W Development- fragmentation, Fire Suppression Systems
- Risk Retention (Acceptance) – Accepting the risk when it occurs, RISK not avoided or transferred, Retained by default. (War)
- Risk Transfer- Causing another party to the Risk through contract/hedging (Insurance).
(a). What are the key step required to develop a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)?
(b). What is an ICT Policy and what should such a policy contain intheminimum?
(a). Steps for Developing a GIS involves the following:
- Consider the strategic purpose.
- Plan for the planning.
- Determine technology requirements.
- Conduct a Technology Seminar
- Determine the end products.
- Define the system scope.
- Create a data design.
- Choose a data model.
- Determine system requirements.
- Analyse benefits and costs
- (i) Definition of an ICT Policy:
- An ICT policy is a set of guidelines that defines how an Organisation should use information technology and information systems responsibly.
(ii) Contents of an ICT policies shall usually include:
- Purchase and usage of hardware equipment and how to safely dispose them
- Use of licensed software only and ensuring that all software is up to date with latest patches for security reasons
- Rules on how to create passwords (complexity enforcement), changing passwords, etc.
- Acceptable use of information technology and information systems in the Training of all users involved in using ICT and MIS
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